California Teaching Standards – Biographies and Beyond / Cordelia Knott

2nd grade CA Reading Standards

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.5             Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.
2.6             Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text

3rd grade CA Reading Standards

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.7             Use a dictionary to learn the meaning and other features of unknown words.
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2             Ask questions and support answers by connecting prior knowledge with literal information found in, and inferred from, the text.
2.4             Recall major points in the text and make and modify predictions about forthcoming information.
2.5             Distinguish the main idea and supporting details in expository text.
2.6             Extract appropriate and significant information from the text, including problems and solutions.
Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.6             Identify the speaker or narrator in a selection.

4th Grade CA Reading Standards

Word Recognition
1.1          Read narrative and expository text aloud with grade-appropriate fluency and accuracy and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.

5th Grade CA Reading Standards
Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.5             Understand and explain the figurative and metaphorical use of words in context.
2.0             Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)
Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.2             Analyze text that is organized in sequential or chronological order.
Expository Critique
2.5             Distinguish facts, supported inferences, and opinions in text.
6th grade CA Reading Standards
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.3             Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics.
2.4             Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, logical notes, summaries, or reports.
Expository Critique
2.7             Make reasonable assertions about a text through accurate, supporting citations.


CA History-Social Science Content Standards

People Who Make a Difference  (Grade 2)

Students in grade two explore the lives of actual people who make a difference in their everyday lives and learn the stories of extraordinary people from history whose achievements have touched them, directly or indirectly. The study of contemporary people who supply goods and services aids in understanding the complex interdependence in our free-market system.

2.1 Students differentiate between things that happened long ago and things that happened yesterday.

  1. Trace the history of a family through the use of primary and secondary sources, including  artifacts, photographs, interviews, and documents.
  2. Compare and contrast their daily lives with those of their parents, grandparents, and/or guardians.
  3. Place important events in their lives in the order in which they occurred (e.g., on a time line or storyboard).

2.4 Students understand basic economic concepts and their individual roles in the economy and demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills.

  1. Describe food production and consumption long ago and today, including the roles of farmers, processors, distributors, weather, and land and water resources.
  2. Understand the role and interdependence of buyers (consumers) and sellers (producers) of goods and services.
  3. Understand how limits on resources affect production and consumption (what to produce and what to consume).

2.5 Students understand the importance of individual action and character and explain how heroes from long ago and the recent past have made a difference in others’ lives (e.g., from biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Louis Pasteur, Sitting Bull, George Washington Carver, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Golda Meir, Jackie Robinson, Sally Ride).

Continuity and Change (Grade 3)
Students in grade three learn more about our connections to the past and the ways in which particularly local, but also regional and national, government and traditions have developed and left their marks on current society, providing common memories. Emphasis is on the physical and cultural landscape of California, including the study of American Indians, the subsequent arrival of immigrants, and the impact they have had in forming the character of our contemporary society.

3.3 Students draw from historical and community resources to organize the sequence of local historical events and describe how each period of settlement left its mark on the land.

  1. Research the explorers who visited here, the newcomers who settled here, and the people who continue to come to the region, including their cultural and religious traditions and contributions.
  2. Describe the economies established by settlers and their influence on the present-day economy, with emphasis on the importance of private property and entrepreneurship.

3.5 Students demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills and an understanding of the economy of the local region.

  1. Describe the ways in which local producers have used and are using natural resources, human resources, and capital resources to produce goods and services in the past and the present.
  2. Understand that some goods are made locally, some elsewhere in the United States, and some abroad.
  3. Understand that individual economic choices involve trade-offs and the evaluation of benefits and costs.
  4. Discuss the relationship of students’ “work” in school and their personal human capital.


California: A Changing State (Grade 4)


4.4 Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power, tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cultural development since the 1850s.

  1. Describe rapid American immigration, internal migration, settlement, and the growth of towns and cities (e.g., Los Angeles).
  2. Discuss the effects of the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II on California.
  3. Describe the development and locations of new industries since the nineteenth century, such as the aerospace industry, electronics industry, large-scale commercial agriculture and irrigation projects, the oil and automobile industries, communications and defense industries, and important trade links with the Pacific Basin.
  4.  Analyze the impact of twentieth-century Californians on the nation’s artistic and cultural development, including the rise of the entertainment industry (e.g., Louis B. Meyer, Walt Disney, John Steinbeck, Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, John Wayne).

Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills
History-Social Science Content Standards: Grades Six Through Eight.

The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the content standards for grades six through eight. They are to be assessed with the content standards in grades six through eight. In addition to the standards for grades six through eight, students demonstrate the following intellectual reasoning, reflection, and research skills:


Chronological and Spatial Thinking

  1. Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.
  2. Students construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying.
  3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.


Research, Evidence, and Point of View

  1. Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
  2. Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.
  3. Students distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifiable from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.
  4. Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them.
  5. Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author’s perspectives).

Historical Interpretation

  1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.
  2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.
  3. Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.
  4. Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.
  5. Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.
  6. Students interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost-benefit analyses of economic and political issues.

12th Grade – Principles of Economics

12.1 Students understand common economic terms and concepts and economic reasoning.

  1. Examine the causal relationship between scarcity and the need for choices.
  2. Explain opportunity cost and marginal benefit and marginal cost.
  3. Identify the difference between monetary and non-monetary incentives and how changes in incentives cause changes in behavior.

12.2 Students analyze the elements of America’s market economy in a global setting.

  1. Discuss the effects of changes in supply and/ or demand on the relative scarcity, price, and quantity of particular products.
  2. Explain the role of profit as the incentive to entrepreneurs in a market economy.
  3. Discuss the economic principles that guide the location of agricultural production and industry and the spatial distribution of transportation and retail facilities.

12.6 Students analyze issues of international trade and explain how the U.S. economy affects, and is affected by, economic forces beyond the United States’s borders.

  1. Compare the reasons for and the effects of trade restrictions during the Great Depression compared with present-day arguments among labor, business, and political leaders over the effects of free trade on the economic and social interests of various groups of Americans.